Testosterone is a sex hormone that belongs to the androgen group. The biological effects of androgens vary depending on the period of life in which they act. In utero, androgens induce sexual differentiation (masculinization of a sexually undifferentiated fetus).
Beginning with puberty and throughout adulthood, androgens exert two kinds of effects. Firstly, it is androgenic, supporting the development and maintenance of secondary male sexual characteristics, and also inducing sex drive. Secondly, while metabolic, present in both sexes, they exert a stimulating effect on various systems and organs (including the liver, city, immune system).
Where is testosterone produced? In what form does it circulate in the human body?
Testosterone is produced primarily by the Leydig interstitial cells in the testes under the influence of the luteinizing hormone. In addition, in much smaller amounts, testosterone is also produced by the adrenal cortex, ovaries and the placenta. In the human body, it is present in the blood in a small amount in free form and bound to albumin. A much larger part of testosterone is associated with the SHBG transport protein, this form is its inactive form.
Does testosterone undergo any changes in the body?
Yes. Testosterone in tissues and target organs is transformed into a much more powerful form – it is dihydrotestosterone. Testosterone begins to exert its effects after it binds to the receptors for steroid hormones, which are located in the cytoplasm of the body’s cells. Many athletes use a testosterone booster to improve athletic performance.
What is the effect of testosterone on the body?
Testosterone is an androgen hormone, the effect of which is “felt” in the womb. You should use special drugs during this period because it is responsible for the process of shaping sex and sexual characteristics. If in utero for some reason there is a disturbing production or action of testosterone (due to a defect in receptors important for its operation), then various types of malformations may also occur.
It primarily include male pseudo-and-hypocrisy or androgen insensitivity syndrome. In utero, under the influence of testosterone, the vas deferens, epididymides, and tubules in which sperm production occurs begin to develop from the primary sexual structures.
And what effect does testosterone exert on the body later on?
First of all, testosterone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Therefore, it affects all “male features” – under its influence, male hair appears (facial hair, chest, abdomen, inner thighs), a low male voice and a male body structure (narrow hips, wide shoulders, developed musculature of the body).
In addition, it also influences spermatogenesis (i.e. the process of sperm formation and maturation that takes place in the male gonads, i.e. in the testes). In addition, it stimulates the growth and development of the prostate gland, and increases its volume. It should also be remembered that testosterone exerts an anabolic effect by stimulating protein synthesis, and is to a small extent responsible for the increase in muscle mass.
When can testosterone have the greatest effect on the body?
The greatest effect of testosterone on the body can be observed during puberty. Then, in boys, the size of the penis and scrotum increases, pigmentation of the skin of these organs appears, and the skin of the scrotum becomes wrinkled. In terms of the accessory sex glands, the prostate gland begins to be palpated. Hair changes can also be noticed: there is stubble on the face, the frontal hairline of the head is withdrawn in both temporal areas. Pubic hair appears, armpit hair begins to grow, hair on the trunk, limbs and around the anus begins to grow. Moreover, in adolescence there is a significant acceleration in body length gain. In addition, under the influence of testosterone, the ability to erect the penis and ejaculation of semen appears, the sex drive increases, there are also significant changes in behavior and emotions – more aggressive behavior may often be present. Using the best testosterone booster, athletes can significantly enhance their performance.
What happens when well-developed men experience low testosterone levels?
In such a situation, feminization of the nipples may occur, i.e. gynecomastia. In the case of too little testosterone, other disorders also arise, among which the most troublesome and embarrassing for men are problems with erection (the number of morning and night erections is significantly reduced) and a significantly reduced level of libido. In addition, hair thinning occurs, men begin to shave less often. Muscle mass and strength decrease, but there is excess body fat, especially around the abdomen.
Often, the decrease in testosterone levels is accompanied by irritability, depressed mood, deterioration of memory and concentration, decreased efficiency and physical capacity. Moreover, men quite often have problems with insomnia. In a situation where a man notices such disturbing symptoms, he should visit an endocrinologist, andrologist or urologist who will order the appropriate tests and prescribe the appropriate treatment. Treatment with testosterone preparations may only be performed under the strict supervision of the attending physician. The main problem for men is low testosterone. Such problems can be solved with the help of boosters and various drugs. If you feel low testosterone symptoms, then you need to see your doctor. A specialist will help you design the proper treatment.
How does testosterone affect a woman’s body?
Too much testosterone in a woman can lead to serious disorders. First of all, a woman develops male hair, it is then referred to as hirsutism. Persistent acne is also often present. Your body shape may change, becoming more masculine, and muscle gain, atrophy of the nipples and a decrease in tone of voice are typical. Appropriate testosterone supplements help to avoid problems with the level of this hormone in the body. A woman may become more aggressive and hyperactive. In such a situation, the woman must be under the constant care of an endocrinologist who will direct the proper treatment.